МатериалДинамика выделения органических метаболитов морскими организмами(Biologiya morya, 1968) Хайлов, К. М.; Бурлакова, З. П. МатериалОсобенности белкового роста и жиронакопления у черноморских рыб(Biologiya morya, 1968) Шульман, Г. Е.; Кокоз, Л. М.The protein growth and fat accumulation in different species and intraspecies groups of Black sea fishes were investigated. There were revealed some quantity characteristics of processes studied which are connected with biological features of these fishes. For characteristic of the processes under investigation the "mean run curves" (monotonously increasing functions) are to be drawn and the variation of quantities of protein and fat (connected with seasonal physiological rhythms) around these "mean run curves" are to be studied. It is shown that the character of "mean run curves" of protein growth depends on the fish life-span. Proportional value of variational processes in protein metabolism in fishes decreases with the age, and progressive processes increase. Close connection with the relation between the protein growth and fat accumulation in the total balance of matter in the fish organism and environment of populations was found. Processes of protein growth and fat accumulation in most species of the fish studied occur simultaneously. МатериалОсобенности белкового состава крови ставрид южных морей(Biologiya morya, 1968) Куликова, Н. И.Protein composition of the blood serum of horse mackerels from the Black sea, the Red sea and the Mediterranean and 5 species of the Atlantic horse mackerels from the west coast of Africa was studied by the method of paper electrophoresis. It was found that protein pattern of the blood is that of specific in each species studied. This specificity is marked either in different quantity of their protein fractions, or in their quantitative interrelation or in different features of their statistical distribution. Individual variations and sex differences in quantitative interrelation of protein fractions are considerable only during the spawning period. As for the protein composition of the blood serum, differences among subspecies within a species are less distinct than those of interspecific. Common features of protein composition of the blood serum are peculiar to all the species of horse mackerels belonging to Carangidae, that distinguishes the present family from other families in sub-order Percoidei (according to the data in literature). Material obtained on 8 closely related species of horse mackerels of the genera Trachurus and Decapterus, 5 closely related species of the genus Gobius, and numerous literary data support our previous suggestion on belonging "large" and "small" forms of the Black sea horse mackerels to one species, namely Trachurus mediterraneus. МатериалСравнительно-физиологическая характеристика крови и кроветворных органов рыб и водных млекопитающих(Biologiya morya, 1968) Коржуев, П. А.; Глазова, Т. Н.The most significant factor of aquatic environment is perhaps sharp reduction of activity of gravitation power. The Aquatic organisms practically spend on efforts on supporting their bodies in contrast to the ground animals. This factor is to be considered when comparing blood peculiarities of the fish and of secondary aquatic mammals. The quantitative—qualitative blood characteristic of different fish groups is defined not only phylogenetically, but also ecologically. One can get an idea of biological significance of blood peculiarities by simultaneous consideration of both blood amount, concentration of respiratory pigment of blood and power of erythropoiesis centres. The erythropoiesis centres of the aquatic animals are more considerably developed in contrast to the fish. In addition, the aquatic mammals musculature is a strong storage of oxygen containing myoglobin of high concentration. Lack of equal oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in both various species of the fish and the aquatic animals is one of the adaption forms to the specific conditions of aquatic environment. Heterogenous nature of haemoglobins is closely associated with the value of oxygen affinity of haemoglobin. МатериалИнтенсивность экскреции азота у Nereis diversicolor(Biologiya morya, 1968) Муравская, З. А.The rate of the total nitrogen excretion by Nereis diversicolor Muller was studied. It was shown that this value correlates with body weight and is described by functional equation N = 0.82*W^0.63, where W - dry body weight, N - nitrogen excretion in mg/day. The relation between the rates of nitrogen excretion and oxygen consumption was expressed by equation N/Q = 0.078*W^-0.1. Our analysis of the data in literature shows that the correlation between nitrogen excretion and body weight exists also in all Vermes phylum. This suggests that the above mentioned correlation is manifested in animals regardless their belonging to different systematic position and age groups. МатериалК анализу калорийности талитрид обитающих в береговых выбросах Черного моря(Biologiya morya, 1968) Сущеня, Л. М.; Аболмасова, Г. И.On the phytogenous beaches of the Black sea the most abundant species of Amphipoda-Talitroidea are Orchestia bottae M.-Edw. The maximum biomass of these animals reaches from 1/8 to 1/10 part of the total weight of substratum. The calorific value of Orchestia was determined simultaneously with a bomb calorimeter and chemical method of combustion. The variability of calorific content within the size group of Orchestia from 1 to 120 mg was relatively constant during the year. Mean calorific value of dry matter have been equal 4.7 Kcal/g. Between the caloricity of unit of ash-free weight (y) and content of organic matter in the animals in percent (x) a straight line relation was found: y = 0.0945*x - 2.55. An increase of caloricity is connected with accumulation of the fat in the body and growth with age of animals. МатериалКислородный долг при интенсивной мышечной работе у кефали(Biologiya morya, 1968) Алексеева, К. Д.Oxygen debt and duration of recovery period during intense muscular work on longfinned mullet (Mugil auratus Risso) were determined. The measurements were carried out in the circular respirometer, hydrodynamic tunnel type, at movement velocity of 88 cm/sec and duration of performance - 30 min. It was shown that the value of oxygen debt in longfinned mullet with an average weight of 110-190 g, made up 12% from the active and 50% from the standard metabolism. Recovery of oxygen debt following fatigue required from 30 to 60 min. Thus it was shown that determination of oxygen debt value taking place during intense muscular work was necessary in estimating the levels of active metabolism. МатериалИнтенсивность обмена у мальков кефали и ставриды(Biologiya morya, 1968) Яковлева, К. К.The investigations of the dependence between metabolism and body weight in the fries of Mugil auratus and Trachurus mediterraneus were performed. The weight of fries varied from 0.0095 to 0.263g in Trachurus and from 0.015 to 0.177g in Mugil. The dependence between metabolism and body weight is described by the equations: Q = 0.276*W^0.69 (for Trachurus) and Q = 0.310*W^0.67 (for Mugil). МатериалЗатраты энергии на дыхание, рост и размножение у Artemia salina (L.)(Biologiya morya, 1968) Хмелева, Н. Н.The size-weight relations, caloric value, fat content, number of eggs produced, respiration and growth of Artemia salina were determined. According to the data obtained the total energy budget for Artemia has been calculated for different periods and for the whole life-time equal to 130 days. The energy of the food assimilated during the whole life is 60 calories per animal, and 120 cal of consumed food. A shrimp consumes during this time 24 mg of dry weight of food, the latter amounts to 5 cal/mg. The daily ration during the reproduction period was found to be 0.2 mg of dry weight of food per specimen, that gives about 40% of dry body weight of Artemia. The growth coefficient of the first order (K1) and the second order (K2) were determined. The first is referred to as the gross efficiency and the second — as the net efficiency of growth. The received data show that the both coefficients of the pre- reproduction and reproduc-tion period of life are different (K1=12.5% and 0.6%; K2=28.1% and 1.8% respectively). However, such decrease in the coefficients is observed when we take into account only the increase energy of the body weight growth disregarding the other elements of the plastic metabolism. Otherwise these coefficients will not change and their values during the pre-reproduction and reproduction periods are similar (K1=17.8% and 17.9%, K2=35.6% and 35.8% respectively). The total energy of growth and energy of respiration are almost equal. The ecological efficiency of Artemia population constitutes 18%. МатериалЭлементы энергетического баланса амфибионтного бокоплава Orchestria bottae M.-Edw. (Amphipoda-Talitroidea)(Biologiya morya, 1968) Сущеня, Л. М.The article deal with the investigations of some parameters in determining the quantitative contribution of 0. bottae to energy turnover at inshore zone of the Black Sea. This species was studied at different stages of its life from July 1962 to June 1963. The received data show that the mean value of food consumption (R) ranged from 17.5 to 77.3% of body weight per day. The efficiency of assimilation (a) during feeding with dead Cystoseira were in the range from 31 to 51%. The relation between the weight of Orchestia (W) and its rate of oxygen consumption (Q) at 20°C is expressed by equation Q=0,243 W^0,74. The energy utilized for growth (G) was estimated by the growth curve received empirically and calculated at the same time on the level of respiration. The growth was converted to units of energy according to caloricity of Orchestia (4,7 Kcal/g). It shows that the gross efficiency of growth ( G/R ) Orchestia ranging in weight from 9 to 80 mg decreased in average from 30 to 8%, the net efficiency of growth (G/aR ) from 60 to 30%. МатериалО температурной зависимости обмена у пойкилотермных животных(Biologiya morya, 1968) Ивлева, И. В.; Попенкина, М. И.Experimental results of metabolism measurements for different marine invertebrates in the course of their acclimation to different temperatures are given. Significant speciesdependent differencies of respiration were shown in: 1) single temperature intervals, 2) the rates of attaining the steady states and 3) the sensibility variations of different size groups to different temperatures. It was pointed that the analysis of temperature dependence of metabolism must be based on the values typical to the completed acclimation process. It was emphasized that acute experiments characterize only the degree of reaction breaking under the influence of temperature and cannot be used for such an analysis. МатериалДыхание тканей некоторых морских беспозвоночных(Biologiya morya, 1968) Виленкина, М. Н.The respiratory rates of various tissues and of an intact animal in Actinia equina L., Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Muller), Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., Rapana thomasiana Crosse, Carcinus maenas L., Xanto hydrophilus Herbst. were studied, and allometric growth of these species was investigated. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of tissue respiration and the weight of body and tissue. The changes in the rate of tissue respiration can be described by exponential equations, the coefficients of equations being different for different tissues. The changes in the summed respiration of all tissues in an animal with the increase of the body weight are similar qualitatively to the changes of the respiration in the intact animal. It was shown that the decrease of metabolic rate per unit weight in an intact animal with an increase of body weight depend on the decrease of the rate of tissue respiration, the character of the relative growth of the tissue and the nervous and humoral regulation. The relative importance of these factors is unequal for the animals of different systematic groups. The role of the allometric growth and the nervous and hymoral regulation increases with the rise in the organisation of animals. МатериалВзаимозависимость интенсивности обмена и скорости роста у животных(Biologiya morya, 1968) Винберг, Г. Г.It has been shown that if net growth efficiency is constant, the growth curve would be of parabolic type. [Formulas] The given relations make it possible to determine the parameters of growth equations and to obtain the intensity of metabolism from the data of growth studies. The examples of calculations concerning the growth and metabolism of some water animals are given.