Бентос / Benthos

Постоянная ссылка на коллекцию

Коллекция содержит статьи из сборника: Бентос : сборник статей / отв. ред. В. А. Водяницкий. - Киев : Наукова думка, 1965. - 139 с. : ил.; 26 см. - (Биология моря/ Акад. наук УССР; Вып. 1).


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    (Наукова думка, 1965)
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    Личинки трематод - паразиты черноморского моллюска Nassa reticulata var. pontica Mont..
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Долгих, А. В.
    Widely found in the Atlantic Ocean and as far to the east as the Sea of Azov Nassa reticulata L.A prevails among gastropods. Larvae of Nassa largely contribute to plankton and adults to benthos, where, like other molluscs, they are common prey for fish of Labridae family. In the early XX century it was found that some N. reticulata from the Black Sea were infested with cercariae and metacercariae of Cercaria inconstans (Sinitsin, 1911), later re-identified as Diphterostomum brusinae Stoss (Palombi, 1930) adults of which are known to parasite fishes of families Labridae, Blennidae, and others. In the Mediterranean Sea parasitic fauna of N. reticulate has not been studied. At present (1964) it is known that Nassa reticulate harbours six cercaria larvae: Cercaria sagitata Lespès, 1857; C. hymenocerca Villot, 1875; C. fascicularis Villot, 1875; (C.) Diphterostomum brusinae (Stoss., 1889) Stoss., 1904; Cercariaeum reticulatum Stunkard, 1932 and unidentified rediae with furcocercariae.
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    К изучению Ostracoda Азовского и Черного морей
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Шорников, Е. И.
    Ostracods which represent subfamilies Loxoconchinae G.O. Sars and Paradoxostominae Brady et Norman and inhabit the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov are discussed. Samples taken near the Crimean and the Caucasian shores of the Black Sea and in the Bosphorus area by researchers of the Sevastopol Biological Station and samples collected by the author from different areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov (700 samples altogether) were examined. As the result, the biology and distribution of species already acknowledged for the two seas were defined more accurately and some new forms found. Several samples from different locations of the Mediterranean Sea were kindly offered by M.I. Kiseleva (Sevastopol Biological Station) that enabled comparison between some ostracods from the Azov-Black sea basin and the forms from the Mediterranean Sea. The recent record includes 25 species out of which some are new, first found in the Azov-Black sea basin and in the Soviet sector of the Black Sea (7, 3 and 8, correspondingly).
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    Новый вид свободноживущей нематоды из Черного моря
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Платонова, Т. А.
    The Black Sea is one of the global water bodies having been thoroughly studied for fauna of free-living nematodes. In this context the works by I.N. Philipiyev (1918, 1922) are of primary significance. Some foreign scientists (Gerlach, 1951; Paladian, 1962) have also paid tribute to Black Sea nematodes as a research object. Hypothetically, Mediterranean species not occurring in the main basin of the sea can be found only in the Bosphorus area where nematological investigations have not been conducted as yet. However, when handling the set of samples collected from the Black Sea by researches of the Laboratory of Benthos, IBSS we found a new free-living nematode attributed to genus Rhabdodemania (Enoplida, Leptosomatidae). This finding was an unexpected contribution to the extensive scientific evidence already available. It is noteworthy that nematodes of this genus are found in the Black Sea for the first time.
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    Морские клещи в донных биоценозах у северного побережья Кавказа
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Маккавеева, Е. Б.
    Little is known about marine mites dwelling in bottom biocenoses of the Black Sea; the sporadic studies were carried out in the Bulgarian sector of the sea in the near-shore strip down to the depth of 40 m (Chichkoff, 1907), in the vicinity of Sevastopol (Viets,1928; Makkaveyeva, 1961) and near the coast of Romania (Motas et Soares, 1940). The biocenosis of Cystoseira growing in Sevastopol seawater area was the only site in which seasonal changes in the life cycle of Black sea mites were observed (Makkaveyeva, Ph.D.Thesis). The recent investigation was conducted using the material collected in the Black Sea near the Caucasian coast in October 1958 and in June 1962. It was found that some seabed substrates such as phaseoline and mussel-bed silts, muddy shell debris, the muddy sand and shell debris with eelgrass growth give shelter to 7 species of saltwater mites among which Halacarus basteri var. affinis dominate. At the depths from 37 to 150 m H. basteri var. affinis was the most abundant species and within the depth range of 8 - 37 m – and P. punctatum. Species which were found on the bottom grounds near the Caucasus were also described for the coastal zone of Bulgaria (Chichkoff, 1907). Fauna of saltwater mites which inhabit 100 – 150 m depths is represented by two key species – H. basteri var. affinis and Copidognathus gracilipes; they are among some few organisms that can survive in the extreme depth of the Black Sea.
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    Биоценоз саргассовых водорослей в Красном море
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Маккавеева, Е. Б.
    Drifting sargassos were collected in the open-sea areas of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden during two expeditions of the RV “Academician Kovalevsky” carried out in 1951/52 and 1963. The majority of the algae were identified to species as Sargasum vulgare L., and some as Turbinaria sp. Sargasso biocenosis consists of two segments – nearshore and pleuston. In the Red Sea it is a temporary assemblage in which littoral or neritic fauna is replaced by pleuston. The biocenosis will inevitably die because of the decaying thallus that was torn off the sea bed and the growing biomass of attached pleuston organisms. Nearshore sargasso fauna is represented by organisms typical of algal beds; many of these species also occur in algal beds growing in the Mediterranean and the Black seas; the largest number of species is characteristic of tube-dwellers. Species found in the pleuston fauna are like in sargasso biocenosis of the Mediterranean Sea and a small portion of fouling organisms. Being a natural reservation of fouling organisms, sargassos play important role by fostering increase of the fouling populations. In autumn, the seasonal NNW and SSE gales rising on the Red Sea torn the algae off the rocks and reefs; transferred by the surface currents from the north to the south, the sargassos cluster together in the central part of the sea.
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    Качественный состав и количественное распределение макро- и мейобентоса у северного побережья Кавказа
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Киселева, М. И.; Славина, О. Я.
    Some polychaetes, molluscs and crustaceans recently found in benthic fauna of the northern coast of the Caucasus were identified as new and rare species for the Black Sea. Several hydrobionts, habitats of which are confined to concrete depths in the sea near the southern shore of the Crimea, dwell within a relatively wide depth range near the northern coast of the Caucasus. Five biocenoses found in the Caucasian coastal zone are: 1) Venus gallina – Divaricella divaricata, 2) Caecum trachea – Gouldia minima, 3) Gouldia minima – Modiola adriatica – Terebellides stroemi, 4) Mytilus galloprovincialis and 5) Modiola phaseolina. The largest abundance and biomass of macro- and meiobenthos have been registered in the biocenosis of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Comparison between the Caucasian and the homonymous Crimean coastal bottom biocenoses has shown that characteristic species in them are different. Species diversity and the abundance of macro- and meiobenthos are greater and the biomass of benthos is lesser in the seawater area of the northern coast of the Caucasus. The stock of benthos in this region of the sea was assessed 1360 kg/ha.
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    Качественный состав и количественное распределение мейобентоса у западного побережья Крыма
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Киселева, М. И.
    The taxonomic composition and quantitative distribution of some meiobenthic organisms (Coelenterata, Nematoda, Kinorhyncha, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Ostracoda, Harpacticoida, Amphipoda, Tanaidacea, Isopoda, Cumacea, Ophiuridae, Ascidea) is discussed; the meiobenthos inhabit different types of seabed grounds at the depths from 8 to 65 m near the western shore of the Crimean peninsula (capes Tarkhankut and Lucull). Out of the studied biotopes of sand, muddy sand, coquina and silt it was sandy biotope where species diversity was highest, with the largest number of species of Nematoda and Harpacticoida. The most diverse fauna of Ostracoda was found on the sea floor of shell rock. Index of similarity has been the highest (32) for coquina and sandy biotopes. Based on the observations, Nematoda had the largest number of identical species in silty and shell rock biotopes; Harpacticoida – in shell rock and sandy biotopes; Ostracoda – in muddy sand and silty biotopes. Average numbers of the meiobenthos was maximal in mud biotope and minimal on coquina. In all the biotopes meiobenthic organisms have the average numbers greater than that of macrobenthos whereas the biomass produced by the former is by far below that by the latter. The portion of meiobenthos in some of the biocenoses can amount to 40% of macrobenthos.
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    Распределение личинок полихет и моллюсков в планктоне Черного моря
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Киселева, Г. А.
    Pelagic larvae of polychaete worms and molluscs are always present in plankton inhabiting the Black Sea. Material that underpins this paper are 270 samples of plankton collected during three research cruises to the western Black Sea and two to the central part of the sea in different seasons of 1957. The study evidences that pelagic larvae of polychaete worms and molluscs – Polychaeta, Lamellibranchia, Gastropoda and Amphineura – occur in any part of the sea; however, being neritic forms, they have the abundance and diversity greatest in coastal zone of the sea. Pelagic larvae of the polychaetes and molluscs are found in plankton of the Black Sea year round; the peak of their species diversity and abundance is typically registered in summer months. Lamellibranchia contribute the largest share to the total number of larvae of benthic invertebrates; larvae of polychaetes and molluscs prefer upper seawater layers.
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    Некоторые эколого-морфологические особенности придонных Cephalopoda
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Зуев, Г. В.
    Bottom forms of Cephalopoda – Sepioidea and Octopoda – dwell mainly in littoral and sublittoral zones to 200 m depth. Compared to pelagic Cephalopoda, the morphology of bottom-dwelling forms is characterized by less developed locomotor apparatus, in particular smaller mantle cavity volume and relative thickness of mantle muscles, altered body shape (some Octopoda have their fins absolutely vanished) and the structure of skin coverings. In the morphofunctional analysis of a series of protective and camouflage adaptations that Sepioidea and Octopoda have evolved we used cephalopods (Octopus sp., Eledone moschata Lam., E. cirrosa Lam, O. vulgaris Lam., Sepia officinalis, S. elegans D’Orb, Sepia orbigniana Ferus) collected by the author from the Mediterranean and the Red seas during the expedition of the RV “Academician Kovalevsky”. The proposed comparative description examines the shape of mollusc body as a masking device; alteration of the cutaneous covering structure; protective function of the bony frame of Sepioidea; ink ejection; jaw apparatus; tentacles and hands.
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    Рост мидий в Севастопольской бухте
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Славина, О. Я.
    In the Sevastopol Bay reproduction of mussels goes, possibly, year round because their larvae were found in the samples of plankton from January to December. As the records show, the number of mussel larvae has been largest from July to September; during cold season of the year the findings were only solitary. According to the observations, mussel shell, whether during the first month of settling or the first and later years of life, is intensively growing in June and August. The largest increase – to 14.5 mm a month – is characteristic of the first year of life; later, during the 2nd and the 3rd year the growth rate sharply decreases. By the end of the first year, largest dimensions were registered in mussels which have become settled during the period from May to June. The maximum length that has been registered for mussels in the Sevastopol Bay is 108 mm. The Black Sea harbours a rich stock of mussels which has not been adequately exploited as yet. Given proper concern, mussel fishery would furnish a variety of useful products such as foodstuff, feeding meal and vitamin-protein concentrates intended for cattle and poultry.
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    Биология размножения Venus gallina L. (Lamellibrachia) в Черном море
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Чухчин, В. Д.
    In the Black Sea Venus gallina L. is a mass form; however its biology, namely reproductive biology, has been insufficiently studied. V. gallina occur also in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean; some researchers consider Atlantic form of the mollusc as species V. striatula de Costa (Forbes and Hanley, 1853) while some other suppose that V. striatula is only a variety of V. Gallina (Jeffrey, 1867; Bucquoy, Dutzberg et Dollfus, 1882; Eales, 1939). This species have evolved aving evolvedHmorphological forms special for different parts of the vast geographic area, therefore it is interesting to compare the biology of reproduction typical of Atlantic and Black sea forms. Our investigation has shown that Black sea and Atlantic V. gallina have similar annual cycle of gonad development: the distinct cycle develops without resting stage, gametogenesis starting immediately after spawning. But spawning time and temperature are different: near the shores of Scotland V. striatula (=V. gallina) spawn in late May, when the seawater temperature is 9-11°С whereas in the Black Sea reproduction of V. gallina begins in summer, when the sea warms to +20-21°С. Based on the critical spawning temperature, Atlantic and Black sea forms of V. gallina are, presumably, two different physiological races like those known for oysters Ostrea virginica (Loosanoff and Davis, 1952) and Ostrea edulis (Korringa, 1957), or even two different species.
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    О суточных вертикальных миграциях некоторых бокоплавов в Черном и Азовском морях
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Грезе, И. И.
    Among amphipods of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov three species, Dexamine spinosa, Nototropis guttatus and Gammarus locusta, definitely make vertical daily migration. According to our study, it is not a feeding migration, though migrating amphipods prey, to a certain extent, on typically planktonic organisms. Moreover, small number of egg-bearing females, prevalence of either male or female fraction and occurrence of juveniles in the migrating amphipod swarm exclude a suggestion that migration is directly related with reproduction. Most probable, further research using ecologo-physiological approach can clarify causes/triggering factors and the biological aim of amphipod migrations.
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    К биологии бокоплава Ampelisca diadema (A. Costa) в Черном море
    (Наукова думка, 1965) Грезе, И. И.
    Scientific literature about Ampelisca diadema (A. costa), which are a key component in trophic system of the sea, is scanty. For our investigation we used samples of benthos collected near the shores of the Caucasus and the Crimea in 1957, 1958, 1962 and 1963. In the 60 samples more than 550 A. diadema were found. Results of the study evidence that in the Black Sea this species is common, inhabiting mainly silty bottom grounds within the depth range from 10 to 100 m. The largest numbers (850 ind/m²) was registered in the sea area near the western Crimean coast at the depth of 18 m. A. diadema is a detrivorous form that feeds on detritus from the uppermost layer of sea floor. The alternative feeding by filtering muddy sea water or suspended particulate matter from near-bottom seawater layer is also possible. About 25 mm³ of the suspension or bottom mud passes a day through the intestine of adult amphipod. Life cycle, presumably, takes a year, not longer. A. diadema reproduce year round; two potential maximums may occur in February and in September. Relatively low fertility – not larger than 27 eggs – and late maturation (minimal body length of egg-bearing females is 6mm) suggest that A. diadema have low reproductive power.